Suggested Daily Dosage :
Adults: Women : 2 Capsules 3 times daily / Men : 3 Capsules 3 times daily*
Babies under 14 months: Not recommended as they may choke (we recommend giving babies under 14 months raw Hemp Seed Oil - 1 to 2 teaspoons per day)*
Children over 14 months: 2 to 4 capsules (please administer under supervision to ensure the child does not choke)
* Always taken with food
The additional naturally occurring products in Hemp Seed Oil
As a result of the change in human dietary habits within the past century, the intake of trans fatty acids has increased dramatically. Studies have shown conclusively that trans fatty acids increase total cholesterol levels and diminish the levels of ‘‘good’’ high density lipo-protein (HDL). By supplementing the diet with high levels of unsaturated cis fatty acids, some of these negative effects can be reversed (Erasmus,1999). With respect to modern diets, the amount of LA consumed compared to the amount of LNA consumed has increased exceptionallyin the past 100-150 years (Simopoulos, 1994). This disparity has disrupted the proper balance of dietary essential fatty acids that is considered nutritionally optimal. In addition to the lack of these essential fatty acids in the diet, factors such as stress and disease weaken the enzymatic activity that promotes the conversion of LA to GLA (Deferne & Pate, 1996). Therefore, a supplementation of LA can be helpful to alleviate this potential deficiency.
In an ideal diet, the daily consumption of fats should not exceed 15-20% of total caloric intake. Approximately one-third of these fats should be the Essential Fatty Acids in their proper ratio. For a 2500 calorie/day diet, LA intake should be 9-18 grams/day, and LNA intake should be 6-7 g/day (Erasmus, 1999). This goal can easily be accomplished through the daily consumption of 3 to 5 tablespoons of Hemp Seed Oil. Although these are the ideal amounts to maintain a healthy, balanced diet, certain stresses to the body warrant increased consumption of Essential Fatty Acids, particularly the Omega-3 PUFA such as LNA.
Omega-3 PUFA have been reported to have an inhibitory effect on cancer and tumour growth. Increased consumption of Omega-3 PUFA have not been shown to exhibit any negative side effects, but their beneficial qualities have been repeatedly confirmed. In addition to their anti-cancer properties, Omega-3 PUFA have been shown to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, help normalize fat metabolism and decrease insulin dependence in diabetics, increase overall metabolic rate and membrane fluidity and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, specifically with regard to relieving arthritis (Erasmus, 1999).
The benefits of Omega-3 PUFA are not only present when taken in large quantities but the regular intake of recommended levels (2-2.5% of caloric intake/day) can be sufficient to provide many of its nutritional qualities.
The essential role of LA and LNA in the human diet is related to both the inter-mediary and end products that they become through several biochemical pathways. LA is metabolized to GLA and subsequently Arachidonic Acid (AA). LNA is metabolized to both Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (Simopoulos, 1994). EPA and AA are metabolized by the body into Eicosanoids.
These compounds ultimately become the Prostaglandins which affect such varied functions as blood clotting, inflammation response, and immune-regulation (Erasmus, 1999). During the synthesis of Prostaglandins from AA and EPA, there is a biochemical competition within the cell membrane (Simopoulos, 1994). The AA has a tendency to move out of the cell membrane and form type 2 Prostaglandins. EPA tends to promote the retention of AA within cell membranes, thereby preventing the formation of the unwanted type 2 Prostaglandins (Erasmus, 1999). When the ratio of the initial starting compounds is shifted in favour of LA however, it becomes more difficult for the products from LNA to sufficiently promote the retention of AA within the cell membrane. The resultant increase in type 2 Prostaglandin production leads to increased platelet aggregation and inflammation (Erasmus, 1999). The benefits of having the proper ratios of fatty acids, with respect to the metabolized products of LA and LNA, are the production of the proper amounts of Prostanoids and Leukotrienes which have anti-thrombotic, anti-vasoconstrictive and anti-inflammatory properties (Simopoulos, 1994).
Cannabidiol (CBD) has also been found to be present in Hemp Seed Oil as well. Although not explicitly produced within the seed, traces of Cannabinoid "contamination" have been reported to result from the pressing of the oil. The presence of CBD is significant because it has documented anti-convulsive, anti-epileptic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Although the levels of CBD in the oil are typically small, many health benefits may still be gained from its presence.
While many studies exist which base the nutritional value of Hemp Seed Oil primarily on its fatty acid content, there are other constituents which are contained within the oil that possess beneficial properties as well. Natural products such as β-sitosterol and Methyl Salicylate and Terpenes complement the nutritious value of Hemp Seed Oil and increases its effectiveness as a functional food.
Hemp Seed Oil has a high content of the enzyme lipase, which is a superior non-invasive chelation therapy for removing plaque build-up (undigested protein and cholesterol) from arteries and cell membrane.
As mentioned before, Hemp Seed Oil is mostly known for its high quality and quantity Essential Fatty Acids. However, the oil also contain other natural occurring products. These natural products, such as Cannabidiol, β-Caryophyllene, Myrcene, β-Sitosterol, α/γ-Tocopherol,and Methyl Salicylate may confer further health benefits to Hemp Seed Oil in addition to fatty acids.
Pharmacological Properties of Cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to possess several desirable pharmacological proper ties which are exhibited in absence of the psychoactive properties of THC (Karler & Turkanis, 1981), which are usually associated with the cannabinoids. Although the levels of CBD normal detected in the oil is low, normally at 10 mg/kg, its presence could still provide some benefit. CBD has been reported to reduce tremors in dystonic movement disorders with minimal side effects (Consroe et al., 1986). Patients receiving doses of CBD ranging from 100-600 mg/day had tremor reductions of 20-50% (Consroe et al., 1986). The anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic activity of CBD has also been well documented (Karler et al., 1973; Karler & Turkanis, 1981). CBD has been found to be relatively selective with respect to the central nervous system (CNS), in contrast to THC (Karler & Turkanis, 1981). Its anti-convulsant activity is on the same order of magnitude of THC, but unlike THC, it lacks psychoactivity. CBD’s added efficacy as an anti-epileptic, without the associated side effects of psycho-activity, give it great pharmacological potential.
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential has been reported in studies as well (Formukong et al., 1988). CBD has been shown to inhibit both the induction of phenyl benzoquinone (PBQ) induced writhing and tetradecanoyl phorbol-acetate (TPA) induced erythema (Formukong et al., 1988). The mechanism by which CBD achieves its anti-inflammatory properties is possibly related toits effect on arachidonate metabolism (Formukong et al., 1988).
Anti-microbial activity has also been reported for CBD. Specifically, CBD has been shown to inhibit the growth in Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces griseus and Staphylococcus aureus (Ferenczy et al. 1958).
Another component of Hemp Seed Oil with several reported activities is β-sitosterol. Although studies have primarily demonstrated the efficacy of β-sitosterol in reducing hypercholesterolemia, additional anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties have been studied and observed (Malini & Vanithakumari, 1990).
Plant sterols have been known to affect plasma cholesterol levels by blocking cholesterol absorption through crystallization and co-precipitation (Mattson et al., 1982). Within the intestinal lumen, phytosterols reduce cholesterol solubility by excluding it from micelles, thereby preventing its absorption. In addition, competition exists between the sterols and cholesterol for uptake into the intestinal mucosa (Lees et al., 1977). A quantitative representation of this can be seen in human studies.
Patients given 500 mg of cholesterol daily in their diets in addition to 1 g of β-Sitosterol showed decreased cholesterol absorption. Mean reduction levels were 42%, demonstrating the efficacy of β-Sitosterol even at low concentrations (Mattson et al., 1982
β-Sitosterol seems to be particularly effective in cholesterol uptake inhibition, especially when delivered through dietary fats (Lees et al., 1977; Mattson et al., 1982). No appreciable decreases in efficacy were observed, even with long-term administration (Lees et al., 1977). In addition, lack of toxicity and little, or no side effects have been attributed to β-Sitosterol, making it an attractive option for long-term cholesterol reducing therapy (Lees et al., 1977; Mattson et al., 1982).
Although not studied as extensively as its hypocholesterolemic properties, relevant anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of β-sitosterol have been shown. Isolated ethanolic extracts of Hedychium spicatum containing β-Sitosterolshowed anti-inflammatory activity (Sharma et al., 1975).
Anti-oxidant properties of Tocopherol s have been known and exploited for some time. Traditional supplementation of Tocopherol s has primarily focused on its α form. Many plants however, including hemp, tend to have significantly higher levels of γ-Tocopherol . Although both exhibit antioxidant activity, their differing metabolic paths confer other specific activities to their respective isomeric forms.
α-Tocopherol is the primary (usually exclusive) Tocopherol in formulated vitamin E supplements. It is preferentially secreted into plasma as opposed to γ-Tocopherol which tends to be found in the intestine (Stone & Papas, 1997). It is α-Tocopherol’s concentration in the plasma that gives it properties other than that of an antioxidant. α-Tocopherol may induce increased membrane fluidity through intercalation between fatty acyl chains in the membrane bilayer (Berlin et al.,
1992). Data suggests that there is a direct correlation between increased fluidity and α-Tocopherol content in the membrane (Berlin et al., 1992).
The biological activity of α-Tocopherol tends to be significantly higher than γ-Tocopherol as a result of its greater affinity to be secreted by the liver into very-low density lipoproteins (Stone & Papas, 1997).
This increased bioactivity does not however, make α-Tocopherol a more effective antioxidant; γ-Tocopherol inhibits phosphatidylcholinehydroperoxide formation more effectively at low peroxynitrite concentrations than does α-Tocopherol (Wolf, 1997). γ-Tocopherol has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in vitro even at concentrations less than 50 ppm (Lampi, Hopia, & Piironen, 1997). In addition, γ-Tocopherol is overall more effective in protecting against coronary heart disease, as compared to α-Tocopherol supplementation (Wolf, 1997).
Perhaps the most interesting activity of γ-Tocopherol which has not yet been widely studied, is its ability to act as an anti-cancer agent, specifically with respect to colon cancer. Because γ-Tocopherol is secreted via the bile into the intestine and faecal material, it can inhibit lipid peroxidation and reduce the formation of mutagenic peroxidation products in the bowel (Stone & Papas, 1997). Ultimately, by being excreted into the colon, as opposed to being active in the plasma, γ-Tocopherol is able to minimize DNA damage caused by reactive nitrogen oxide species (Stone & Papas, 1997).
Within Hemp Seed Oil, γ-Tocopherol is present in significantly higher quantities than α-Tocopherol . They both however, play an important role as antioxidants in their respective physiological systems
The presence of several terpenes were confirmed in the oil, the most abundant of which were β-caryophyllene and myrcene which were found at 740 mg/L and 160 mg/L, respectively. The
Terpene compounds are primarily found in the essential oil of Hemp rather than in the seed oil (Hendriks et al., 1978), as a result of their production in the glandular structures on the aerial portions of the plant. These terpenes impart Hemp with its characteristic smell.
Some pharmacological properties of β-caryophyllene are anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. In addition, it has been reported that myrcene exhibits anti-oxidant properties (Duke, 1999).
The presence of β-caryophyllene and myrcene, even if only present as “contamination” components, add beneficial value to an already nutritionally important food product.
Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen)
The medical benefits of plant salicylates have been enjoyed by people for centuries. Today aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid, a close relative of methyl salicylate, is one of the most widely used drugs in the world because of its antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Once injected, methyl salicylate can be hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, a common active ingredient of aspirin and most other salicylates. Thus, pharmacological effects of methyl salicylate are similar to those of aspirin. Also, millions of people regularly take low doses of salicylates (aspirin) to reduce the risk of heart attacks, strokes and cancer. Methyl salicylate deserves particular attention as a beneficial component of Hemp Seed Oil, even if present in trace quantities.